By Gene Likens, F.Herbert Bormann
Once we initially released Biogeochemistry of a Forested atmosphere in 1977, the Hubbard Brook surroundings research (HBES) have been in lifestyles for 14 years, and we integrated facts via 1974, or a biogeo chemical checklist of eleven years. Now our non-stop, long term biogeo chemical documents hide greater than 31 years, and there were many adjustments. the main striking switch, notwithstanding, is that 3 of our coauthors at the unique quantity at the moment are deceased. they're deeply overlooked in such a lot of methods. regardless of the longer files, diverse tendencies, and new insights, we think that the fundamental suggestions and techniques we offered in 1977 signify the main beneficial contribution of the unique version. they're nonetheless legitimate and helpful, fairly for an introductory research of, or path in, biogeochemistry. Our target during this revision is to maintain those fea tures, right mistakes, and revise or dispose of deceptive or ambiguous temporary information (11 years!), whereas keeping nearly the unique size and the modest fee.
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Additional info for Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem
3-cm orifice. Right: weight-activated recording gage. Alter-type windshields reduce wind velocity around gage opening to provide a sample equivalent to deposition on ground. A mixture of ethylene glycol and methanol are added to gages in winter to convert snow to liquid state. (b) A polyethylene apparatus used for collecting rain for chemical analysis consisting of a 28-cm diameter funnel, tubing, 2-liter reservoir, and vapor barrier. Samples are retrieved and a clean apparatus installed at 1-week intervals.
Therefore it is not surprising that the increase in input of hydrogen ion from 1964 to 1974 is not significantly related to the change in input of sulfate. In contrast, the increase in input of hydrogen ion was highly correlated with the increased input of nitrate (Figure 11). , 1976b). Although sulfuric acid dominates the precipitation at Hubbard Brook and accounts for most of the hydrogen ion in precipitation, therefore, the increase in input of hydrogen ion during the past decade apparently has been caused by an increase in the annual nitric acid content of precipitation falling on this forested ecosystem.
Because the geologic substrate is essentially watertight and losses of water by deep seepage are minimal, almost all water has intimate contact with the biologic and inorganic components of the soil as it moves 24 2. Hydrology 45 . -5. e. 2 35 If) '0. 11) c:: ~ -§, 30 :J ~ . 0a. 2 . -£ iii a. E 10 E u 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Precipitation (cm for the period, June through September) FIGURE 8. Relationship among precipitation, streamflow, and evapotranspiration during the months of June through September for Watershed 3 of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest during 1958-1974.
Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem by Gene Likens, F.Herbert Bormann