By Henry N. Houérou
Protecting a space of over a hundred thirty million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent includes a unbelievable geographic range. for that reason, it's characterized by way of tremendous variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to quite a lot of ordinary crops and natural world, in addition to human inhabitants density, vegetation and farm animals. during this e-book, Henry Le Hou?rou offers his bioclimatic and biogeographic category of Africa. The vast information give you the foundation for comparisons among quite a few African areas, and with areas on different continents similar to Latin the US or the Indian subcontinent. the consequences represent a rational foundation for nationwide, neighborhood and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural examine facing points corresponding to plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of purposes also are tested.
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Additional resources for Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa
In the Sudanian and Guinean ecological zones, the gradient is similar but with strong deviations along the Atlantic Ocean shores of the Gulf of Guinea, associated with the SW monsoon trajectory and depending on the shoreline angle with this trajectory. The consequences of the geographic distribution of land and ocean masses for the spatial distribution of rainfall is examined in the next section. 3 Classification Criteria 37 Fig. 13 Geographic distribution of mean annual ETo in Africa (Le Houérou et al.
Oil palm, pineapple, cocoa, raphia, hevea, coconut, vanilla—and therefore need a heavy rainy season throughout their biological cycle. The same reasoning applies to forage species as well as to forest and afforestation species, as shown below and, for crops, in Table A19. 3 Classification Criteria 29 Selection of forage species in function of rainy season length A. Common, more or less drought-tolerant fodder species and crops in the hot tropics (90 < RS < 180 days) a. Annual legumes Canavalia ensiformis, Jack bean Clitoria ternatea, butterfly pea, Kordofan pea Lablab purpureus, Lablab bean Macroptilium atropurpureum, Siratro Macrotyloma axillaris, horse gram Macrotyloma uniflornm, horse gram Stylosanthes hamata, Hamata stylo Vigna unguiculata, cowpea, Niébé (W.
5 ETo is an arbitrary one without any experimental basis, established with caution at a time when the relationship between ETo and soil surface evaporation had not yet been elucidated. e. the amount of precipitation occurring 3 years out of 4 in this system. 75(P/ETo). Since rainfall distribution is markedly skewed in low-rainfall areas, DP may represent only 40 to 60% of the mean (see Figs. 3–5). e. in 4 of 5 years, and not 3 of 4 years as advocated by Hargreaves. 33 MAI represents 26 1 Introduction Table T7 Evaporation from bare unsaturated soil.
Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa by Henry N. Houérou