By Frances Karttunen
Spanning the globe and the centuries, Frances Karttunen tells the tales of 16 women and men who served as interpreters and publications to conquerors, missionaries, explorers, infantrymen, and anthropologists. those interpreters acted as uncomfortable bridges among worlds; their very own marginality, the truth that they belonged to neither world,underscores the complexity and rigidity among cultures assembly for the 1st time. The interpreters include:
o Do–a Marina (La Malinche), who interpreted for Cortes within the conquest of Mexico
o Sacajawea, who observed Lewis and Clark on their expedition
o Sarah Winnemucca, a U.S. military scout and Washington lobbyist for the Northern Paiutes
o Gaspar Antonio Chi, Maya Interpreter basic for Yucatan
o Guaman Poma de Ayala, eyewitness reporter of the destruction of Inca culture
o Charles Eastman, a Sioux healthcare professional at Wounded Knee
o Larin Paraske, an informant for Finnish ethnographers
o Do–a Luz Jimenez, Diego Rivera’s version and a local informant to anthropologists
o Mar’a Sabina, the Mazatec mushroom shaman who grew to become a star within the drug tradition of the 1960s
o Ishi, the final surviving Yahi Indian.
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Extra resources for Between Worlds: Interpreters, Guides, and Survivors
The men all hunted and fished, but they were no more consistently successful in this than Shoshone men had ever been. Sacajawea knew the Shoshone woman's skills of collecting roots and berries. Many of the edibles that she located and prepared were unknown to the men she fed, and they would never have struck upon them on their own. She not only collected plants as they grew but also knew how to locate the underground caches of small animals that had already done the work of collecting the food; Sacajawea simply dug it up.
The rainy season was at its height, and they trudged through deluges. The way became difficult with mountains and unfordable streams, and horses died in appalling numbers. Hunger, thirst, and relentless heat took their human toll as well. Towns emptied out at the news the Spaniards were coming, and it was hard to find provisions or guides. Back in Mexico City the rumor had long since taken root that Cortés and Doña Marina had perished, and people claimed to have seen their < previous page page_20 next page > < previous page page_21 next page > Page 21 ghosts burning in flames where the temple of Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc had stood.
Through the sign interpreter, Lewis attempted to convey to him that the rest of the expedition was coming with a Shoshone woman to speak for them. After some days Lewis managed to get the Shoshones to accompany him back in the direction from which he had come, in order to hasten the meeting. Two days later the groups met. Sacajawea had been walking out ahead of Clark when she dropped all reserve and began to gesture joyfully. She was immediately recognized by a woman who had also been a captive of the Minnetarees for a while, and there was general rejoicing at her return.
Between Worlds: Interpreters, Guides, and Survivors by Frances Karttunen