By Robert J. Clack (auth.)
RUSSELL AND THE LINGUISTIC PHILOSOPHY I t is mostly said that Bertrand Russell performed an important position within the so-called "revolution" that has taken position in 20th century Anglo-American philosophy, the revolution that has led many philo sophers almost to equate philosophy with a few type - or kinds - of linguistic research. His contributions to this revolution have been fold: (I) including G. E. Moore he led the winning insurrection opposed to the neo-Hegelianism of Idealists similar to Bradley and McTaggert; (2) back with Moore he supplied a lot of the impetus for a just a little progressive approach of doing philosophy. (I) and (2) are, after all, shut ly comparable, because the new means of philosophizing might be acknowledged to consti tute, largely, the insurrection opposed to Idealism. Be this because it may perhaps, how ever, the real truth for current attention is that Russell was once a tremendous impact in turning Anglo-American philosophy within the path it has thus taken - towards what should be termed, rather normal ly, the "linguistic philosophy. " regrettably, even though his value as a precursor of the linguistic philosophy is famous, the perfect experience within which Russell himself might be thought of a "philosopher of language" has no longer, to the current time, been sufficiently clarified. precious beginnings were made towards an research of this query, yet they've been, withal, in simple terms start nings, and not anything like an sufficient photograph of Russell's total philoso phy of language is almost immediately available.
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Pp. ) He also says, a few pages later, in a discussion of knowledge by description: " ... " (p. ) One can only conclude that when he makes statements of this sort he is speaking somewhat loosely and is not thinking of acquaintance in the strict sense discussed above. " 1 In the case of someone else, however, a quite different situation obtains. A person who knows Bismarck is not, strictly speaking, acquainted with Bismarck himself. "What this person was acquainted with were certain sense-data which he connected (rightly, we will suppose) with Bismarck's body.
Speaking of Bismarck, for instance, he says, "if he made a judgement about himself, he himself might be a constituent of the judgement. , p. 201. Indeed, he says this in some of those very contexts in which he is attempting to make a clear distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. , for instance, he implies that it would be possible for him to be acquainted with the Emperor of China, but, as a matter of fact, he is not. (pp. ) He also says, a few pages later, in a discussion of knowledge by description: " ...
45. THE QUEST FOR LOGICAL FORM 27 the external world. In the first chapter of P. , where he examines the perennial philosophical question of "appearance and reality," he argues that acquaintance - which he calls there "direct awareness" - is the fundamental kind of empirical knowledge, is, indeed, perhaps the only mode of cognizing external reality to which the term "knowledge" is strictly applicable. " 1 Ultimately, he is sure, our knowledge of the external world must be grounded in those experiences in which we are immediately aware of the world.
Bertrand Russell’s Philosophy of Language by Robert J. Clack (auth.)