By Petra Hendriks
This booklet asserts that language is a signaling process instead of a code, established partially on such study because the discovering that 5-year-old English and Dutch young children use pronouns properly of their personal utterances, yet usually fail to interpret those types effectively while utilized by another individual.
Emphasizing the original and infrequently competing calls for of listener and speaker, the writer examines ensuing asymmetries among creation and comprehension. The textual content deals examples of the translation of observe order and pronouns via listeners, and note order freezing and referential selection by way of audio system. it really is explored why the standard symmetry breaks down in teenagers but in addition occasionally in adults.
Gathering modern insights from theoretical linguistic examine, psycholinguistic stories and computational modeling, Asymmetries among Language creation and Comprehension presents a unified rationalization of this phenomenon.
“Through a lucid, entire assessment of acquisition reviews on reference-related phenomena, Petra Hendriks builds a impressive case for the pervasiveness of asymmetries in comprehension/production. In her view, listeners systematically misunderstand what they pay attention, and audio system systematically fail to avoid such misunderstandings. She argues that linguistic concept should still take inventory of present psycholinguistic and developmental proof on optionality and ambiguity, and realize language as a signaling procedure. The arguments are compelling but arguable: grammar doesn't specify a one-to-one correspondence among shape and that means; and the calls for of the mapping job fluctuate for listeners and audio system. Her suggestion is formalized inside optimality idea, yet researchers operating outdoors this framework will nonetheless locate it of significant curiosity. within the language-as-code vs. language-as-signal debate, Hendriks places the ball firmly within the different court.” Ana Pérez-Leroux, collage of Toronto, Canada
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Extra resources for Asymmetries between language production and comprehension
1989. Mind, code, and context: Essays in pragmatics. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Gnanadesikan, Amalia. 2004. Markedness and faithfulness constraints in child phonology. In Constraints in phonological acquisition, ed. Ren´e Kager, Joe Pater, and Wim Zonneveld, 73–108. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Initially published in 1995 as ROA-67. P. Seligman, and Rochel Gelman. 1976. Language in the two-year-old. Cognition 4: 189–202. Grimshaw, Jane, and Sara Thomas Rosen. 1990. Knowledge and obedience: The developmental status of the binding theory.
In the Papuan language Fore, discussed by de Swart (2007:91–92), this constraint on animacy is a strong constraint on interpretation. 3 Explaining the Word Order Asymmetry 39 marking on the arguments of the verb, the noun phrase that is highest in the animacy hierarchy is interpreted as the subject. 2) (taken from Scott 1978:116) can only mean that the man kills the pig, not that the pig kills or attacks the man. 2) Yaga: w´a aeg´uye. IND ‘The man kills the pig,’ not: ‘The pig kills/attacks the man’ To express the non-default meaning that the pig attacks the man, a speaker of Fore will have to mark the subject with a special suffix (-wama with inanimates or animals and -ma with humans).
This explanation, proposed by Smolensky (1996) within the constraintbased grammar Optimality Theory, used the fact that a constraint-based grammar with markedness constraints is direction-sensitive. Due to a nonadult ranking of markedness constraints on form, children’s phonological production but not their phonological perception is different from adults’. As a consequence, children’s production of words lags behind their perception of these words. In Chap. 1, we also formulated the prediction that if markedness constraints on meaning rather than form would be ranked too high in children’s grammar, this would result in an inverse asymmetry, with production preceding comprehension.
Asymmetries between language production and comprehension by Petra Hendriks