By A.F.G. Dixon
Aphids are an important of the sap sucking bugs, also they are significant pests of agriculture, horticulture and forestry. This ebook covers the evolution of aphids and their improvement in terms of particular vegetation. Optimization is used to give an explanation for how modes of feeding and replica have affected their measurement and inhabitants constitution and ended in a really shut and particular organization with their host crops.
expanding wisdom of aphids has published that they're excellent organisms to exploit while learning many topical ecological concerns. they're quite vital for trying out predictions of existence background conception, as their clonal constitution makes it attainable to check the reaction of a genotype to quite a lot of stipulations.
Aphid Ecology has been completely revised and increased because the first hugely profitable variation was once released in 1985. This booklet is aimed toward experts, publish graduates and complicated undergraduates operating within the fields of ecology and entomology.
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Additional info for Aphid Ecology An optimization approach
1950; Mittler, 1958a; Dixon, 1970a). There is more nitrogen in the phloem sap of plants that are growing, flowering or senescent, because nutrients are then being translocated. 12). e. e. between different stages in the seasonal growth cycle of a plant. 1 Variation in space Not all the parts of a plant are equally suitable sources of food for aphids. , 1950; Ibbotson and Kennedy, 1950). For example, early in the season Aphis spiraecola preferentially infest the most rapidly growing shoots of Spiraea but then densitydependent dispersal results in the shoots all becoming equally infested per 39 FOOD QUALITY Myzus persicae c o ~ N ·c o (5 U "0 :E 0.
1982; Dreyer et al. , 1994). Certain defensive chemicals like the non-protein amino acid canavanine and phenols have been recorded from phloem sap (Ziegler, 1975; Dixon, 1975a). , 1970; Wink and Romer, 1986; Nishida and Fukami, 1989; Malcolm, 1990). Similarly, the broom aphid sequesters the four alkaloids produced by its host plant (Wink et al. , 1982). Myzus persicae is probably the most polyphagous of all aphids, yet it has not been recorded from even 1 % of all vascular plants (Eastop, 1973) and particular genotypes of this aphid are associated with particular species of plants (Takada, 1979).
1992, 1994). , 1994). However, at least one species (Sitobion fragariae) only appears to produce and mainly respond to nepetalactone, which is one component of the sex pheromone of at least five species of aphids from two tribes. Thus the sex pheromone in this case does not appear to be very specific (Hardie, 1991). Similarly, Steffan (1983, 1987, 1990) also presents evidence that the sexual pheromone is not very species specific, is usually only perceived over a relatively short distance of 2-10 cm and that in hostalternating aphids the primary host (p.
Aphid Ecology An optimization approach by A.F.G. Dixon