By Beranek L.L.
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Dissertation. , Meunier J. (1982). Identification of elastic coefficients through resonant tests of soils samples, Proceedings 2nd Soils Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering Conference, Southampton, 65-75. G. (1975). Seismic field methods for in situ moduli. Proceedings of the Conference on Site Measurement of Soil Properties, ASCE, Special Conference, North Carolina. P. (1992). Seismic cone analysis using digital signal processing for dynamic site characterization, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 29(3).
This test has long been considered as the test which most closely duplicates the field stress conditions in a soil element subjected to the vertical propagation of shear waves. The first tests under cyclic loads have been reported by Peacock and Seed (1968) and Silver and Seed (1971). Presently, the most commonly used apparatus are derived from the original Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) device; the cylindrical sample is wrapped in a reinforced rubber membrane. The sample is consolidated under a vertical effective stress V’v and is radially confined 'HWHUPLQDWLRQRI6RLO&KDUDFWHULVWLFV by the reinforced membrane under a horizontal stress K0 V’v (K0, coefficient of earth pressure at rest).
Lengthening of the period, due to SSI, moves the response to a region of smaller spectral accelerations (Figure 1). However there is evidence that some structures founded on unusual soils are vulnerable to SSI. Examples are given by Gazetas and Mylonakis (1998) for instance. This has been recognized in some codes. Eurocode 8 states that: "The effects of dynamic soil-structure interaction shall be taken into account in the case of: x structures where P-G effects play a significant role; x structures with massive or deep seated foundations; x slender tall structures; x structures supported on very soft soils, with average shear wave velocity less than 100 m/s.
Acoustics by Beranek L.L.