By Antony Alcock (auth.)
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Extra info for A History of the Protection of Regional Cultural Minorities in Europe: From the Edict of Nantes to the Present Day
94 Following the Crimean War waged between Russia on the one hand and Turkey, Britain and France on the other, the two Romanian provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, which had been invaded by Russia, although remaining part of Turkey, became autonomous. In the Paris Convention of 19 August 1858 the Great Powers laid down that their inhabitants should be equal before the law and taxation, enjoy full property rights, and have access to public employment. 95 In March 1878 with the Treaty of San Stefano following the RussoTurkish War of 1876–77, the Great Powers recognised the independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and obtained an autonomy for Bulgaria.
68 Those who wished to get on clearly required English, so much so that the ‘hedge schools’ which in the seventeenth century were teaching in Irish to the Catholic rural population had turned to teaching in English. 70 Fourth, in 1831 (two years after Catholic Emancipation) a country-wide system of ‘national schools’ was introduced for Catholic Ireland. Managed by the Catholic Church, Irish was excluded from the curriculum. The result of all this was that Irish speakers became objects of ridicule, and schoolchildren caught speaking Irish had, as in Wales, Scotland and Brittany, to wear a tally stick round their necks.
From its high-water mark when it controlled south-eastern Europe up to the gates of Vienna in 1683 its decline would give rise to the so-called ‘Eastern Question’ – which country or countries would inherit its mantle? During the nineteenth century a number of wars and settlements involving Turkey would take place with, each time, that empire diminished until, on the outbreak of the First World War, Turkey’s only European foothold was the area between Constantinople and Adrianople. Interestingly, as Turkish authority waned and new states emerged in its place the European Great Powers imposed on them a system of protection of religious minorities.
A History of the Protection of Regional Cultural Minorities in Europe: From the Edict of Nantes to the Present Day by Antony Alcock (auth.)